Koks yra didelis jautris?

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  • #737
    Belas
    Keymaster

      “Didelio jautrio” siūlyčiau vadinti muzikai atkurti pritaikytas kolonėlės, kurių jautris yra 93 dB/W/m arba didesnis.
      Kolonėlių jautrį lemia žemųjų dažnių garsiakalbio efektyvumas, o taip pat kolonėlių konstrukcija.
      Didžiausią jautrį turi ruporinės konstrukcijos, leidžiančios pasiekti maždaug 110 dB/W/m jautrį.

      Garso atkūrimo sistemų (GAS) skirstymas į mažo ir didelio jautrio yra sąlyginis, bet vienas požymis leidžia nesuklysti – kolonėlių su ruporais jautris paprastai būna 93 dB arba didesnis. Pilnai ruporinių GAS jautris gali siekti 110 dB/okt.
      Muzikos atkūrimui pritaikytų didelio jautrio ŽD garsiakalbių motorai būna labai stiprūs. Ritės būna 75-100 mm diametro iš stačiakampio laido, membrana 10-15″ su akordeono tipo pakaba, žemas 20-32 Hz rezonansas, didelė membranos eiga, išlietas šasi – toks būtų tipinis didelio jautrio žemadažnio garsiakalbio konstrukcijos rinkinys.
      Didelio jautrio AS gerai atkuria mikrodinamiką, turi mažą garso signalo kompresavimą, todėl šios GAS turi didžiausią darbo tiesiškumą.
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      Prasidėjus elektroniniam muzikos atkūrimui, triodinių vientakčių A-klasės stiprintuvų galia tesiekė kelis vatus. XX a. pradžioje buvo reikalingi jautrūs garsiakalbiai ir inžinieriai tokius sukonstravo. Didelio diametro plačiajuostis garsiakalbis su lengva membrana ir stipriu elektromagnetu gerai tiko buitiniams radijo imtuvams, bet plačiajuosčiai buvo per silpni didesnei kino salei įgarsinti. Tada buvo sugalvoti specializuoti plačiajuosčiai: žemesnes muzikos oktavas atkurdavo vienas ar keli 15″, o aukštesniasias – kompresiniai garsiakalbiai su ruporais.
      Buvo nušaunami keli zuikiai:
      – dvijuostės AS su ruporais turėjo didesnį dinaminį diapazoną;
      – pilnai atkurdavo kino juostelėje arba į magnetofoną įrašyto garso dažninę;
      – turėjo mažus iškraipymus;
      – garso sklaida buvo kontroliuojama ir buvo galima tolygiai įgarsinti dideles erdves.

      Apie 1940-uosius vadovėliuose buvo aprašytos pagrindinės AS schemos, sukurti garsiakalbių analizės modeliai ir matematinis aparatas elektrodinaminių garsiakalbių parametrams įvertinti. AM radijo imtuvai atkurdavo visą transliuojamą 50 – 8000 Hz dažnių juostą, o radijo stočių garso kontrolės kolonėlės turėdavo 45 – 12000 Hz dažninę. Aukščiausios klasės radijo ir TV stotyse būdavo naudojamos dar geresnės didelio jautrio kolonėlės su 40 – 15000 Hz dažnine.
      Mažo jautrio era prasidėjo sukūrus nedidelius ŽD garsiakalbius su žemu rezonansu. Galioja dėsnis – kuo garsiakalbiai mažesni, arba norime praplėsti ŽD atkūrimą, tuo AS jautris yra mažesnis. Buitinių AS su “guminiais” žemadažniais jautris paprastai būna iki 90 dB/W/m ir tik pačių didžiausių daugiajuosčių priartėja prie 93 dB/W/m. Štai kodėl pasiūliau “93” laikyti AS skirstymo pagal jautrį riba.

      Nuotraukoje TAD-Exclusive 2251. Palyginti nedidelės, nes panaudotas 11″ žemadažnis. Garsiakalbis jautrus (94 dB/W/m), pasyvinis filtras jautrį 1 dB sumažina, bet šie monitoriai yra didelio jautrio kolonėlės.

      Exclusive-2251

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      #753
      Belas
      Keymaster

        Įrašų studijų garso kontrolės kambariuose naudojami dvijuosčiai arba daugiajuosčiai monitoriai. Toliausiai pažengę muzikos mylėtojai taip pat renkasi didelio jautrio dvijuostes arba daugiajuostes AS.

        Nuotraukoje dvijuosčiai TAD 2404 ir keturių juostų JBL 4344. Kolonėlių jautris nesiskiria, nes abiejose naudojami 15″ didelio jautrio žemadažniai:TAD Exclusive 2404 ir JBL 4344

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        #760
        Belas
        Keymaster

          Kai iš JAV į Japoniją dirbti 1975-aisiais buvo pakviestas Bart Locanthi, kartu su Shozo Kinoshita Pioneer kompanijoje jiedu sukūrė puikius garsiakalbius. Amerikoje Pioneer įsteigė TAD (Technical Audio Devices) profesionalios aparatūros padalinį ir per 11 metų buvo sukonstruota aukštos kokybės viduriniojo akustinio lauko dvijuosčių studijinių monitorių. Nuo 1986-ųjų akustika pažengė, tačiau rinkoje nepastebėjau už TAD geresnių 15″ žemadažnių ir berilinių AD draiverių ruporams.

          TAD Exclusive 2402 yra daugelio pažengusių audiofilų svajonių kolonėlės.

          Pioneer-Exclusive-2402_sm

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          #856
          Belas
          Keymaster

            Audiofilo siekis yra ne tik paklausyti įrašą, bet pilnai atkurti jį. Geriausiai mus patenkintų didžiųjų garso įrašų studijų įranga, todėl mėgstame jas patyrinėti.

            S. Kinoshita Japonijoje įkūręs Rey Audio ir tai vienas žinomiausių tolimojo lauko studijinių monitorių gamintojas.  Pasaulyje daugybė didelių įrašų studijų, kur garso kontrolės kambariuose įrengti Kinoshita didelio jautrio dvijuosčiai garso monitoriai. Studijų sąrašas čia, o plačiau apie Kinoshita monitorius skaitykite čia.
            Su S. Kinoshita darbuojasi amerikietis Tom Hidley, suprojektavęs apie 600 įrašų studijų.  Pastarasis su Glenn Phoenix JAV įkūrę Westlake Audio įrašų studijų tinklą. Westlake Audio taip pat gamina įvairiausių modelių aukščiausios klasės studijinius monitorius.

            Viena didžiausių pasaulyje BOP įrašų studija su Kinoshita monitoriaisBOP Studio One

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